In the Previous article It raised the increasingly palpable situation of quantum computers becoming a tool for everyday use. In this post we will try to solve the doubts posed by this technology and the related advances.
We start from the basis that a bit of information can be worth one or zero, but not both. Then What would happen in the case that a bit could be one and zero at a time? would be called Qubit, which is what they call the bit on a quantum computer. A characteristic of this Qubit Is that it can be one and zero at the same time. The problem is that it is difficult to understand the concept since there is nothing like it in our environment.
This Image It can help you take it. Just what we see/get is different Depending on the Approach but maintains the information of both projections in a single figure. The 1 could be the square and 0 the circle.
How does it affect technology these days?
The applications are very varied, from artificial intelligence, image recognition, to the calculation of unencompassable mathematical problems. Well, what about this? What does it affect me? It turns out it will affect you indirectly. Currently, all secure communications use encryption algorithms such as RSA. They are based on mathematical problems that current computers are not able to solve in a reasonable time.
And a quantum computer is going to be able to solve these problems?
Effectively. Returning to the topic of Qubits, these are able to contain both the zero and the one, so that every time an operation is performed all the possibilities are calculated simultaneously. Today we can only do calculations sequentially, so we need much more time. It is for this reason that We will not be able to use the same algorithms in the future, because they will not be safe because the difficulty in mathematical calculations disappears.
So, I’m moving to a country that hasn’t advanced so much in quantum computing to be sure? It is true that important progress is being made in this regard, for example The quantum computer presented by IBM, but at the moment they have only achieved speeds similar to the current computers.
I’ll explain the next feature with a little bit of history. In the U.S. war against Japan, the Japanese Radio Corps formed soldiers who had studied in the U.S., so they spoke and understood the language perfectly. Evidently, it was a decisive disadvantage for the American army, which decided to use Navajo Indians in the Radio Corps. This strategy prevented the Japanese army from deciphering the messages sent by the U.S.
How does communication between quantum computers work?
Something similar happens in quantum computing, Eve (the spy) can try to intercept the information sent to Alice and Bob, but will not understand it because it is as if I do not understand the language they are using.
Another important feature is that Alice and Bob detect when Eve tries to intercept the message. To explain this, imagine a Phone call Between Alice and Bob. Alice is communicating to Bob the company’s confidential information and Eve picks up another phone to listen to the conversation. The problem for Eve is that if you pick up the phone, Alice and Bob start hearing a background noise while they talk, so they realize and end up with the call. Broadly speaking, this is how communication works between Quantum computers.
In conclusion, we can say that Quantum computers will make history of current cryptography happen, but is replaced by the security provided by quantum computing such as spy detection. It must be seen in a positive way as it will allow important advances in research fields such as medicine and artificial intelligence.
Ricard Comas | Cybersecurity engineer at R3 CyberSecurity